Green Fruits Dedicated Workshop Report

The Green Economy Green Growth, GEGG (not for profit) Association
< > as an input to the AIGE (ASEAN Institute for Green Economy), organized the Green Fruits Dedicated Workshop, 22 to 26 March 2018 in Yangon
The Welcome address was given by U Aung Naing Oo, Director General, Directorate of Investment and Company Administration DICA, Ministry of Planning and Finance and the Secretary of Myanmar Investment Commission, MIC; U Zaw Min Win, President, UMFCCI, Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry, .
The Keynote Speech was given Dr. Tin Htut, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation.
The Final Agenda is in Attachment 1. All power point presentations by the speakers are being collated in a folder and will be uploaded in the GEGG website by mid-April.

The Opening Session was covered by the media that included MRTV, Skynet TV, Myanamr Framers TV and Myanmar Times.
Skynet TV, returned on the last day for follow up interviews with UK and Myanmar speakers..

Twenty high caliber multi-disciplinary Speakers and Discussants from Government Ministries, Research Departments, Universities, private sectors and four UK academia and practitioners were speakers. The Speakers and Resource Persons affiliations are listed in Annex 2, as well as in the Final Agenda.

The Green Fruits Dedicated Workshop was by design intentionally limited in participation, and by invitation only, to encourage and facilitate free and frank discussions and sharing of knowledge.

The Field visit was to two orchards in Bago Region.
The Group of Speakers and Resource persons was warmly welcomed by the Chairman of Shwe Myanmar Orchard , with over 200 hectares growing primarily mangoes and at the Oway Orchard , 500 + hectares, by the owner who is also the President of the Myanamr Fruits, Flowers, and Vegetables Producer and Exporter Association, The Association has over 45,000 small, medium and larger growers.
There was free, franks and lively discussion on Policy, Strategy, Technology and Practices and the challenges and opportunities confronting Myanmar growers

The Green Fruits Dedicated Workshop is an immediate follow up to the ASEAN Institute for Green Economy, AIGE Inception and Implementation Meeting, 6 to i8 Feb 2018,in Nay Pyi Taw.
With the British Embassy Yangon support, Professor Michael Jeger, Emeritus Professor and Senior Research Investigator, Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London was a speaker in the Session Improving Green and Blue Sustainability and Productivity
Professor Jeger highlighted the opportunities of Greening Horticulture and Fruits.
This initiated the convening of the Green Fruits Dedicated Workshop.

The website < > is uploaded with the Final Agenda and Summary Highlights of the AIGE Meeting, as well as the Message of H.E Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, State Counsellor and
H.E U Myint Swe, Vice President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.

The Workshop was specifically dedicated to

  • fruits, in particular high volume and high value ,
  • catalyze and promote the greening of fruits, objectively examining the challenges, opportunities and benefits
  • Elaborate the concept and parameters of green fruits and the state of knowledge of science, technology and management practices.

The Important Role of Horticulture and Fruits
The Opening Session Welcome Address by U Naing Oo, mentioned the new modernized Myanmar Investment Law, that replaced the century old Companies Act, with a number of reforms and is simplified. The committed aim is to attract more investments for the sustainable development of Myanmar.
Agriculture and its related services are included in the investment promoted sectors. Fruit growers and investors can enjoy income tax exemption based on their investment location. According to Notification No 10/2017, issued by the MIC, the Less Developed Region is specified as Zine 1; Moderate Developed Region as Zone 2; and Developed Region as Zone 3.
Income tax exemption may be granted to investment projects in Zone 1 for a period of 7 consecutive years, including the year of commencement of the business; in Zone 2 for a period of 5 years; and in Zone 3 for a period of 3 years.
Agriculture and its related services and the value added production of agriculture products are one of the prioritized areas and applications by fruit growers and investors are given priority.
For small holders to easily access to the provisions of MIC, the new investment law is decentralized to the States and Regions for investments of USD 5 million or below. Foreign investors may lease land either from the Government, governmental organizations or private sources for 50 years with a consecutive period of 10 years extension up to two times. The MIC can grant a longer period for the right to lease land under the Law, to investors who invest in lease developed and remote regions.
Pivotal changes in the agricultural sector are land issues and insufficient infrastructure in which the Government is tackling to overcome through improvements of legal framework and emphasis on promoting private sector investment.
U Aung Naing Oo, highlighted the opportunities of the agricultural sector in Myanmar: a vast area of fertile land, abundant water resources, and diverse climate. The land in the country is still uncontaminated with pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers. Organic farming has long been rooted across the nation. This can and should be amplified and upgraded by eco-friendly and sustainable ways. Traditional agricultural economy needs to be transformed into a productive and sustainable agro-economy , for example with better irrigation, better quality seeds, decreased postharvest loss from farm to fork and an expanded value change management system.
In accordance with the new Investment Law, the MIC is not only a regulator but also a facilitator and promoter of investment, particularly the agriculture sector due to the important role it plays in the social and economic deployment of the country
U Aung Naing Oo, in his previous responsibilities with the Ministry of Commerce, initiated the Myanmar Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers Growers and Exporters Association.
He is well aware of the significant potentials and opportunities of the economic, social, health, nutrition, employment, jobs, livelihoods, and ecological benefits of green fruits.
He concluded the Welcome Address by saying. “It is often said that a good beginning is half the work. The initial steps of the GEGG would be a success. I believe together with all the stake holders, the objectives will be achieved. I look forward to hearing he good suggestions from the participants”

The Welcome Speech by U Zaw Min Win, President of the UMFCCI, Union of Myanamr Federation of Chamber of Commerce and Industry, with Members that include the MFVFGE
U Zaw Min Win, emphasized Agriculture and Horticulture plays a very important role in the economy and development of Myanmar and cited the 2016 Agricultural Sector Policy and Thrusts for Second Five year Term Plan, “About 70% of the population in Myanmar resides in rural area and agriculture is their ways of livelihood. While the agriculture sector contributes 30% of national GDP, both the benefits that are gained from farming as well as the socio –economic status of farmers are extremely” The Plan also included “Support for the development and value added processing industry using primary products of agriculture, livestock and fishery sector, and find ways so as to successfully compete well in the international markets.”
Green fruits bring many direct and quick – impact benefits such as social, cultural, health, wellness, economic and ecological to farmers and consumers.
The global trend of consumers for healthy, safe and green fruits is also growing and so is in Myanmar, particularly in Yangon. There are increasing number of shops advertising and selling green produce.
For Myanmar agriculture and horticulture to be competitive in the regional and international market place, it is imperative this sector also transit quickly to green and clean, to support the Thrust of the Second Five Year Plan.
Green, clean and sustainable concept, policy, strategy and practice were strongly advocated at the recent ASEAN Institute for Green Economy, AIGE Inception and Implementation Meeting held in Nay Pyi Taw 6 to 8 Feb 2018.

H.E Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, State Counsellor Message stated “It is clear that we must pursue a different path moving forward. This will enhance our resilience to climate change, resolve environmental challenges, while creating new economic opportunities and jobs. “
H.E U Myint Swe Vice President Inaugural Keynote stated “Realizing that economic development cannot be sustained without protecting the environment, ASEAN countries have committed themselves to protect and promote the environment. With this concept in mind, “A clean and green ASEAN with fully established mechanism for sustainable development by 2020” is set as our common goal.”
And further more added “AIGE is an innovative foundation to share information and experiences, ways and means and promote dialogue among member countries and Development Partners towards the vision of clean and green environment of our ASEAN region.”
Green Horticulture and the Role of Fruits in Myanmar Dr. Tin Htut , after his Key Note , Chaired and introduced the Session on Green Horticulture and the Role of Fruits. He exceptionally participated extensively for two days and contributed with insights and deep knowledge to all the sessions with policy, management and technical advice on all the components of the green fruits value chain. .More information on key stake holders and who is doing what analysis are To expand and increase green fruits, commensurate marketing , commercializing , investments, research and training are needed.
Current situation of fruit production in Myanmar, the presentation by Prof Dr. Khin Thida Myint, Head, Department of Horticulture, Yezin Agricultural University, mentioned Myanmar is geographically and climatically suitable for tropical and subtropical fruit crops. The ten top fruits in Myanmar in terms of production area are: mango, cashew nut, pineapple, jujube plum, tamarind tee, lemon and lime, orange, durian, pumelo, and custard apple.. Mango and cashew nut are by far the highest among these top 10. Cashew nut area remains stable for the continuous 8 years when mango has an increasing trend in area of production.
Mango has the highest volume. As a whole, yield of many fruit remains almost the same for each year. The yields observed reflects the need of systematic orchard management.
According to 2012 data, among the top 10 fruits of Myanmar average yield of cashew nut and orange were higher than world average based on data availability
Banana that needs to be included due to its production, consumption and market and for religious and social affairs particularly for Myanmar.
Generally, there is no remarkable volume for fresh horticultural commodities but through border trade, where some fruits are recorded for the borderat Muse point. According to the data of MFFVPEA, there were 7 fruits which went into china market with increasing volume for all the fruits except for banana.
China, Singapore and Thailand are big major markets for horticultural commodities, and fruits such as mango. However, poor postharvest operation and quality assurance are main hurdles for the fruit sector.
There is the imperative need for the Myanmar horticulture and fruit sector to transit towards green cultivation and production for the ASEAN and global market.

Myanmar Horticulture is at Stake

  • Private sector is in the front line in horticultural crops production and market access
  • Only crops that contributed to export earnings are counted in agricultural statistics
  • Poor facilities even with dried marketable agricultural commodities
  • Much challenges for fresh horticultural produce including fruits

Factors limiting horticulture development are:

  • Low Productivity,
  • Low quality
  • Insufficient market diversification
  • Non –modernized processing
  • Limited capacity

Opportunities towards Green Fruit Industry

  • Existing conventional farming practices favors sustainability
  • More opportunities towards green production
  • Technology development for green fruits production (flower forcing, water management, postharvest, packaging)
  • Green fruits are essential in the use for medicinal purpose
  • Production of Green Fruit is of paramount importance
  • Growing demand of safe fruits in health-concerned society (alternative medicine)
  • Many fruit varieties that suit in Myanmar condition (banana, dragon fruits, grape etc.)
  • GAP needs to be fully implemented (mango, watermelon, guava, avocado, pomelo, muskmelon)

Ways forward

  • Market creation for green produce and value addition
  • Stakeholders awareness
  • Monitoring and quality controlling of green products
  • Educating public for green fruits consumption
  • Capacity building
  • Adoption of GAP
  • Quality assurance
  • Transformation and value addition process
  • Appropriate quality management systems
  • Infrastructure improvement for distribution and food processing
  • Market place evolvement in production area
  • Increased International cooperation.

Current Situation of Fruits Production, Research and Future Prospects in Myanmar
was presented by Dr. Win Naing, Department of Agricultural Research (DAR) Yezin.

  • Shelf-life of Sein Ta Lone STL mango as affected by hot water treatment and modified atmosphere packaging
  • Hot water and different packing materials on shelf-life of STL mango under cold storage and ambient condition
  • Growth and yield of STL mango as affected by different fertilizer rate
  • Early fruit production with some chemicals
  • Late flower and fruit production with different application times and dosage of GA3
  • Mango germplasm conservation at DAR
  • Study on fruit drop of Mango by spraying with some chemicals
  • Effects of different pruning methods on yields and quality of STL mango
  • Growth , yield and quality of mango as affected by different application time of chemicals cv.STL
  • Fruit setting and yield of STL mango by different foliar spraying
  • Effect s of root pruning and different fertilizer rates on flowering and fruit yield
  • Effects of different pruning methods on yields and quality of STL mango
  • Quality and colour changing of some mangoes as affected by different bagging material

Mango germplasm conservation and Characterization

  • About 77 varieties of Mango are maintained in situ conservation farm
  • Fruit characters of these varieties were documented
  • Will collect the some more varieties


Current Research Activities and Knowledge Sharing

  • Different inter -stocks on yield and quality on STL mango in Ultra High Density
  • Fertigation and deficite irrigation during fruit development in STL mango.
  • Off-season production of different mangoes
  • Early flowering and fruiting technique of Sein Ta Lone mango at Dept of Agriculture Research as well as at private mango orchards located in Bago and Mandalay Divisions
  • Rejuvenation Pruning of Old Mango Orchard Difficult to Pruning

In efficient in spraying
Dangerous for operator
Difficult to bagging, harvesting
Nutrient Management

  • Emasculation and hybridization procedure supported by Yunan Academy of Agricultural Science, China
  • Collaborative research with YAU, DAR and cienceVision Sdn Bhd
  • Mango DNA sequensing (STL, Yin Kwe and Ma Chit Su)
  • STL – hard to induce flowering
  • Yin Kwe- regular bearing
  • Ma Chit Su- Off-season

“Plant Breeding, Physiology; Weed, insect and pests control; Crop rotation; Application of Traditional Knowledge and Practices, Fusing state of the art science, technology and traditional knowledge” was presented by Dr. Saw Hto Lwe Htoo, Department of Horticulture, Yezin Agricultural University

Breeding of Potential Crops

  • New varieties for green production and economy
  • Market demand and profit
  • Characters focused
  • Methods
  • Ease and time
  • Safety and social criticism concerns
  • Mass/vegetative propagation
  • Characterization and gene bank

Plant Protection Approaches

  • Taking the advantage of breeding advancement
  • Cropping system
  • Population balancing of pests and natural enemies
  • Agrochemicals import and regulations
  • Designing cropping and pest control calendar
  • Trainings

Design, Practices and Improvement


  • Integrating and collective efforts in technologies and approaches
  • Training and irrigation system
  • Orchard/floor management
  • Growth regulators
  • Protected structures
  • Validation of the practices

“Certification and Implementation of Organic Fruits” was presented by
Dr. Than Than Sein. Visiting Professor, Biotechnology Dept , Mandalay Technological University
Founder of Myanmar Organic Grower and Producer Association, Head , Institute of Environment Resources and Development. The processes are

  • Myanmar Organic Grower and Producer Association MOGPA
  • Third Party Certification
  • Potential GI Fruits in Myanmar

To assure integrity and quality

  • Third-party certification: Independent certification body
  • Second party: e.g. Participatory Guarantee System, PGS
  • First party: Self Claim
  • PGS and Third Party are regarded by IFOAM as Complimentary Approaches
    to Organic Guarantees/Certification
  • PGS are locally focused quality assurance systems. They certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange
  • IFOAM is actively promoting PGS as a way to …
    ensure that the smallest farmers can have access to markets
    ensure the integrity of organic products in a cost effective, transparent way
    facilitate local production and consumption of organic food
    Challenges of PGS in Myanmar
    Requires high degree of dedication from stakeholders
    Long term process for capacity building
    Lack of government recognition in some parts of the world (recognition in others)
    Complex social organization (collective)
    A lot of voluntary work
    Human Error
    Not relevant for anonymous, long distance market channels, e.g. not for international export.
  • Geographical indications
    Link a product to a particular region
    Indicate qualities, attributes, reputation associated with geographic origin
    Suggest connection to region’s inherent characteristics (e.g., soil, climate, terrior)
    May also imply production skills/processes associated with region


Examples of geographical indications

  • Columbia Columbian coffee
  • India Basmati (rice)
  • Greece Ouzo (spirit)
  • France Champagne (sparkling wine), Roquefort (cheese)
  • Mexico Tequila (spirit)
  • Italy Parma ham
  • Switzerland Etivaz, Gruyere (cheese)
  • Portugal Port (wine)


Sein Ta Lone is the best due to:

  • The most sweetness
  • specific flavor
  • good aroma
  • less pungent
  • more pulp firmness
  • reduced Fiber
  • reduced acidity
  • Sein Ta Lone recommended as One Diamond Mango Brand identity

Glycaemic Index Values of Myanmar Mango and Banana Fruits was presented by
Dr. Nway Htike Maw, Research Scientist, Experimental Medicine Research Division and
Dr. Moh Moh Hlaing, Deputy Director, Nutritional Research Division, Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health and Sports

  • most fruits have low to medium glycemic index, they do not lead to a sharp rise in blood glucose levels compared to other carbohydrate containing foods
  • Commonly eaten fruits in Myanmar


  • Low GI: Apple, Mango, Orange, Pear, Strawberry, Grapes
  • Medium GI : Banana, Papaya, Pineapple, Kiwi
  • High GI: Water melon



  • Banana is a commonly eaten fruit source of complex carbohydrate.
  • In Myanmar, PheeKyan, Rakkhine and Thee Hmwe (yellow) are commonly eaten varieties which are available in all seasons. Their GI are respectively : 55.29±5.66, 51.7±7.69, and 63.73±8.46
  • Mean plasma glucose response to oral glucose and test bananas

Plasma Glucose Concentration (mmol/L)
Men± SD

0 mins 30 mins 60 mins 90 mins 120
Glucose 6.14±0.9 8.15±1.1 8.8±1.6 7.73±1.3 7.5±2.1
Phee-Kyan 6.7±1.1 9.0±1.5 7.3±1.1 7.11±1.9 6.76±1.6
Rakhin 6.87±0.9 8.64±1.2 8.21±1.0 6.56±1.1 6.15±1.2
Thee Hmwe 6.87±0. 7.77±1.4 8.17±2.3 6.5±1.6 5.95±1.4
  • Mangoes are rich in carbohydrate, high in sugar, excellent source of vitamin C, A, and B6., contains a wide variety of carotenoids, including beta-carotene, and other phytonutrients, can protect cells from damage, lower risk of cardiovascular disease, and provide other health benefits.
  • Glycemic index values of mangoes in Philippines. Australia and India re respectively:
    41, 51±3, and 60±16
  • The DMR research in progress aims to determine “Glycemic index values of Myanmar mangoes: Sein-Ta-Lone and Mya-Kyauk in apparently healthy subjects”.

Efficient, Sustainable and Resilient Agronomy. Highlights of presentation by Professor Mario Caccumo, Managing Director, National Institute of Agricultural Botany, Kent, UK
“We cannot meet the challenge of the food security agenda by producing food tomorrow, the way we produced food yesterday. We have to innovate

Short term goals

  • Resource use efficiency
  • Integrated pest management
  • Agronomy best practice
  • Training
  • Digital technologies
  • Pests monitoring


Long term goals

  • Breeding for resistance and quality
  • Improving soil health
  • New technologies for ripeness, etc
  • Biocontrols

Crop Science & Production Systems

  • Pest, Pathogens & Ecology
  • Genetics, Genomics & Breeding
  • Largely by dwarfing Rootstocks, fruits productivity increased by ten-fold , in 100 yrs
    With Net benefit = £8.2 billion (between 1920-60 alone)
  • Largely possible by dwarfing rootstocks
  • Controlled Atmosphere Storage supplying demand all year round
  • Sound science – the role of ethylene reducing losses of 1.3 tonnes of apples worth £700 million between 1930-70


The leapfrog model
“A blank canvas for green horticulture”
A leapfrog to a low-carbon, low-input, sustainable green horticulture.
Key drivers

  • Digitalisation / DSS
  • Postharvest best practices
  • Integrated pest management
  • Efficient use of resources
  • Breeding for the future

Exploiting stress signals

  • Beneficial stresses’ (availability of water, macro- and micro-nutrients)
  • Improved flavour, firmness, phytonutrient content, shelf-life
  • Resource partitioning – higher dry matter content
  • Improved water and nutrient use efficiencies


New technologies

  • Digital imaging – improving yield forecasts
  • Thermal imaging – monitoring for abiotic and biotic stresses
  • Hyperspectral imaging – rapid, non-destructive assessment of quality
  • Closed loop, multi-sensor, precision fertigation, remote sensing
  • Canopy growth vs Reference
  • Benchmark Canopy Development


Biotic constraints in Myanmar

  • Fungal and oomycete pathogens:
  • Mango: Powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes), stem end rot (Dothiorella spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternata), malformation (Fusarium moniliforme)
  • Avocado: Phytophthora root rot (P. cinnamomi), end rot (as mango, disease complex), tar spot (Phyllachora gratissima)
  • Guava: Anthracnose (C. gloeosporiodes)
  • Banana: Fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum)

Bacterial diseases in Myanmar

  • Bacterial research at NIAB EMR focuses on genome sequencing to study pathogen populations and evolution to inform disease control.
  • Pseudomonas syringae causes apical necrosis disease on mango and cankers and dry rots on avocado.
  • The genus Xanthomonas also causes wilt on banana.
  • Bacteria such as Pseudomonas and rhizobacterium can also be important biocontrols for many fungal diseases affecting these crops

Biological control

  • Parasitoids, predators and pathogens


Conservation biological control (Kenneth W. McCravy)

  • practices – maintain and enhance reproduction, survival and efficacy of natural enemies
  • avoidance of harmful practices
  • knowledge of biology and requirements needed

Inductive (augmentation)

  • large population of natural enemies administered for quick pest control – PREVENTATIVE or CURATIVE

Resource use efficiency

  • Irrigation system design and audits, scheduling, precision irrigation
  • Rain water harvesting, recycling


  • Bespoke fertiliser formulations, precision application, improved acquisition
  • New sensors to measure concentrations in situ


  • Pruning, growing systems, supplementary lighting


  • Training

Harness Digital Revolution

  • Digital imaging – improving yield forecasts
  • Thermal imaging – monitoring for abiotic and biotic stresses
  • Hyperspectral imaging – rapid, non-destructive assessment of quality
  • Closed loop, multi-sensor, precision fertigation, remote sensing
  • Canopy growth vs Reference
  • Benchmark Canopy Development


The fruit and vegetable supply chain was presented by Prof Ben Bennett, Professor of International Trade and Marketing Economics, Deputy Director, Natural Resources Institute, Director of the NRI Postharvest losses Reduction Centre, Director of Research and Enterprise, University of Greenwich, UK. He posed the question: Is there a triple bottom line from “Green” Fruit?

  • Environment premium – better resource use, increased resilience, lower emission
  • Economic premium – price and yield – Higher quality/quantity
  • Social premium – employment, inclusion, Health benefits through diet and income

Markets and marketing – key concepts

  • Value chain analysis
  • Upgrading
  • Horizontal and vertical integration
  • Economies of scale
  • 4Ps – Price, Product, Place and Promotion


Green Morocco Plan (GMP)

  • Started in 2008 and ends in 2020
  • USD 1billion invested
  • Aims to increase productivity for a range of targeted crops and fruit including niche products like Argan oil
  • Focus on commercial agriculture: large contract producers with small farmer ‘hubs’ with subsidized inputs
  • Climate smart: drought resistant plants, drip irrigation
  • Managed through an Agency for Agricultural Development (ADA)
  • Big increase in drip irrigation
  • Some commodity successes: tomatoes, strawberries
  • US$15 million private investment
  • 120 value chain projects


  • Total value of agricultural has grown 20-3-%
  • Farms small and fragmented (75% less that 1ha) – change to new crops increased VULNERABILITY
  • Failed to fully consider FOOD SECURITY issues
  • Struggled to meet EXPORT targets due to competition (e.g., Turkey)

Policies: pulling the right levers – good and bad?

  • Subsidies
  • Price mechanisms
  • Trade mechanisms
  • The power of procurement
  • Using challenge funds and grants
  • Financial – credit
  • Key infrastructure
  • Compliance and regulation
  • Intellectual property management

Spill-over: wider economic benefits and how to measure them

  • Nutrition?
  • Employment?
  • Environmental benefits costs?
  • Income distribution effects?


Certification – pros and cons : Many different types – very market specific

  • Organic
  • Fair Trade
  • Forest
  • Labour
  • Private (GMP, GAP etc)

Water, energy, soil and chemicals
Water: scarcity and pollution

  • Depletion of groundwater – particularly irrigation
  • Pollution – fertiliser and pesticide in run-off
  • Arsenic in groundwater
  • Water contamination of food

Soil degradation and loss

  • Land clearance
  • Urban/rural spread
  • Poor tillage practices
  • Damaged ecosystem services – pollinator loss
  • Loss of diversity (reduced resistance and trait value)

Solutions – Irrigation, water

  • Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM)
  • Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) to private control
  • Cost recovery – charge full cost of water
  • Water efficient irrigation
  • Precision irrigation
  • Increase root potential
  • Deeper roots
  • Reduced soil disturbance (mulching, covers, tillage)
  • Extend seasons – tunnels, hydroponics etc
  • Wastewater harvesting
  • Groundwater recharge

Solutions – energy

  • Transport and equipment
  • Irrigation
  • Precision agriculture
  • Solar (pumps)
  • Postharvest: washing, waste, processing, management practices – clustering, packaging and plastics

Solutions – chemicals

  • Integrated pest management (IPM)
  • Cultural controls – field sanitation
  • Mechanical controls – traps, barriers, removal
  • Bio-pesticides

Solutions – soils: nutrient and carbon management

  • Precision farming
  • Organic nutrient recycling
  • Micro-dosing
  • Storage
  • Price fluctuation
  • Over-supply, glut
  • Controlled atmosphere?
  • Cold storage capacity and ownership models?

Food safety and quality management – some policy issues

  • Dualism – international food safety achieved, domestic food safety failed – food safety poverty?
  • Management by regulation – is it cost effective?
  • Even developed countries get free loading (e.g., ‘mad cow’ and ‘horse meat’):

Recommendations for multi-year work programme
Market research – what do your target market really want?

  • Marketing plan – how will you fulfill those needs?
  • Business models – will all the elements of the value chain make money?
  • Competition analysis – do you have comparative and competitive advantage you can exploit?
  • Branding, vision, ethos – what is the overall brand for green fruit?
  • Impact – who will gain and who will lose? Will the project be inclusive? How will if effect distribution of resources in the economy?
  • SDGs – link your results to the SDG targets
  • Undertake policy analysis to demonstrate the impact of different development and impact pathways
  • Invest time in building a strong Theory of Change and Impact Pathway
  • Build elements of governance and institutional strength in early


Weed, insects and pests control and crop rotation in Myanmar”
Highlights of Presentation by Dr Lara Vickers, Harper Adams University Crop and Environment Science Department, Newport, Shropshire

Myanmar Pests and Weeds

  • Mango: 43 insect pests and 31 microbiological disease
  • Citrus Fruits: 31 insect pests and 8 microbiological diseases
  • Morris and Waterhouse reported 222 arthropod pests and 170 weeds of agriculture in Myanmar. Ranking importance using 10 crops – 44 arthropods pests where considered major importance, the most important from that list being Spodoptera fitum, Helicoverpa armigem, Agrotis ipsilon, Spilarctia obliqua, Thrips palmi, Aphis gossypii, Odontotermes spp., Agrotis segetum, Boctrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis and Sdrtothrips dorsalis
  • The most important weeds are Amoranthus spinosus, Cyperus iria, Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colonum, Fimbristylis miliacea, Impemta cylindrica, Leucas cepha/otes, Mimosa pudica, Mitracarpus villosus and Trianthema portulacastrum.

Mango case study; Phillipines (and India)

  • Cultural: right planting distance, periodic weeding, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying, etc. Pest/disease free water for irrigation and sprays
  • Bait traps: light traps, sweet juice tuba trap
  • Chemical: Spray at appropriate times in growth cycle (natural or chemical sprays, natural eucalyptus oil, citrus oil, cayenne pepper, soap, neem, onion and garlic spray)
  • Biological control: Parasites like trichogramma, braconids, and pirate bug.
  • Crop rotation or inter-cropping: reduce infestation or prevent re-infestation
  • Scheduling production: less insect pests in summer months
  • Remove diseased or infested fruits: burning, bury or composting them for fertilizer.
  • Combination approaches recommended; biological , agronomic, chemical

Education and Regulation Issues in Myanmar

  • Spraying down on calendar dates and not according to observations in the field and thresholds – essential for IPM
  • Retailers provided advice regarding product choice and spray frequency to growers
  • Growers relied on this advice unaware of efficiency or mode of action of pesticide
  • Labels in English an issue and lack of awareness of toxicity of products and need for PPE
  • 1990 The Pesticide Law outdated

Integrated Pest Management
The philosophy behind the IPM approach is to create unfavorable conditions for pest buildup by enhancing crop vigor and by protecting natural enemies that aid in controlling pest populations.
Planning in advance is vital for IPM to succeed

  • Combines chemical control (in rotation) when necessary with cultural and biological control to form a comprehensive program
  • Emphasizes maintaining pest levels below the economic threshold


IPM involves combining practices such as:

  • selecting crops and varieties which are resistant to pest pressures
  • timing planting and harvest dates to minimize pest damage
  • rotating crops
  • monitoring pest and natural enemy populations
  • employing beneficial insects and other biological controls
  • Abiotic and biotic controls
  • Biological controls
  • Attract-and-kill strategies
  • Pest monitoring
  • Nursery production of healthy plant material
  • Improving soil health
  • Breeding for resistance/tolerance

Mixed and Inter cropping

  • Intercropping
    Intermixed within a row
  • Strip cropping
    Different crops grown in rows close to another, better to allow mechanisation4

Benefits = mix N fixing legume crops to enhance soil fertility, wind barrier, microclimate manipulation, improved weed control, improved habitat for natural enemies and potential for a trap crop
50% reduction in insect pest populations
Reduction of 60% in monophagous pests, 30% in polyphagous pests (Andow, 1991)
Cons = Specific choice for the agri-system, labour intensive

Key Messages

  • Correct identification of pest/disease/weed needed
  • Integrated pest management approaches are the best; they rely on understanding of the crop physiology, pest physiology and interaction with the wider biota and abiotic factors
  • IPM is a case-by-case basis and evidence synthesis is key. Look to cases around the world and regionally to inform a strategy; then trial, review, adjust, reassess – continual cycle
  • Often solutions maybe simple and low cost, however labour intensive
  • Breeding requires genetic and molecular resources for that crop, often genetic resistance works best when you have homogeneity of the pest and conservation of wild rootstocks with genetic diversity for the host to work with
  • Combining approaches can alleviate the natural selection pressure to the development of resistance in the pest/disease to genes or chemicals
  • IPM will only work if growers are educated on the systems – regulation and expert advice is needed. Board or Association? Role of crop protection advisors? Would Myanmar benefit an BASIS/FACTS ‘greener’ equivalent from the UK?

“Transforming Greater Mekong Food Systems: Bridging Food Systems and Rural Livelihoods” was presented by Dr. Richard friend, York University, York, UK, and Greater Mekong Food Systems Hub
Transforming Greater Mekong Food Systems: context

  • The GMS is currently undergoing rapid social and economic transformation investment in infrastructure, economic liberalisation, regional integration
  • This process, however, is putting significant pressure on: traditional livelihoods, Nutrition, Competition over and degradation of land, water, and natural resources.

Transforming Greater Mekong Food Systems: the challenge: a sustainable food system pathway

  • capable of meeting different economic, nutritional and environmental development priorities
  • Our focus is on poor and marginalised people of the GMS, both rural and urban.

Rural Livelihoods

  • What are the main trends and trajectories of change in rural society and their implications for poor people’s wellbeing and vulnerability?
  • What are the implications of demographic, economic, environmental and political changes for the viability of small-scale farmers/fishers?

The future of rural livelihoods

  • Regional and national policy not always correspond with the SDGs
  • Assumptions about the future of rural livelihoods – but major gaps in our understanding
  • Understand food systems from the perspective of small scale farmers/fishers
  • Recognising that the future might not be only about production

Food in the SDGs

  • By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

Applying a food systems approach – a business approach that is increasingly influential

  • Feed, Farm, Food, Retail & food Outlet
  • Conceptual frame work for understanding change implications

“Unpacking the Food System” Recognizing a “Complex Adaptive System’

WP Mapping & Intervention Points

  • Environmental feedbacks e.g. water quality, GHGs, biodiversity
  • FSec and other Socioeconomic feedbacks: e.g. urban diets & nutrition, rural livelihoods,,
  • Social, Political, Business, and Biophysical Environments

Transforming Greater Mekong Food Systems: the Hub

  • Overall purpose of the Hub is to build capacity in food systems analysis to assess transitions and transformative pathways and co-design research and interventions to implement these pathways


Focused on Green Fruit Industry Development

Biotechnology and Information Technology assisted Green Fruit Industry

  • Data and Knowledge Management System
  • Germplasm collection and characterization
  • Biotechnology application in genetic identification by gene sequencing
  • use of Mobile technology in information sourcing

Sustainable green fruit development technology

  • Green Fruit Development Hub
  • Green Fruit Technology Guideline/Green Agricultural Practice
  • Mango Model Farm and Research Center
  • Integrated Plant Protection Strategies for Green Fruit
  • Postharvest technology development for green fruit/mango
  • Alignment of Food safety measure

Value Chain Development and Production Economics

  • Comprehensive Value Chain Management and Analysis of Mango
  • Profit Maximization Design for Green Fruit
  • Market study and Market information Development



  • Role of Horticulture, with reference to Fruits in the social, economic development of Myanmar.
  • Values, benefits and opportunities of Green Fruits


  • Economic And Financial Benefits
  • Social and Cultural Benefits
  • Quality value- added brand, market niche
  • Health, nutrition, wellbeing
  • Increasing multi-disciplinary and inter – ministry collaboration , e.g. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation, Ministry of Health and Sport, Depart of Medical Research, by Yezin
  • Department of Agriculture Research, Yezin University Agriculture, Dept.of of Horticulture,



  • Nutrients, fiber, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, sugar
  • Diet for vulnerable groups
  • Increasing and improving food safety.
  • Increasing and improving work environment
  • Increasing translational research.

Ecological and Ecosystem Benefits

  • Enhancing natural capital and ecosystem services.
  • Safeguarding the boundary limits of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
  • Increasing climate resilience.

Policy Instruments for decision makers
Economic Tools

  • Financial Instruments, e.g, credit and micro finance
  • Local and international market access
  • Normative means, e.g. standards, rules, regulations labelling.
  • Increasing access and availability of land, water, energy, in particular renewable energy
  • Strengthening and increasing inclusion and equity
  • Increasing jobs, employment and livelihood opportunities for farmers to reduce migration to neighboring countries and to other sectors.

Innovation, transformation and translational technology and management Platform
for increased cooperation, e.g

  • Digital imaging – improving yield forecasts
  • Thermal imaging – monitoring for abiotic and biotic stresses
  • Hyperspectral imaging – rapid, non-destructive assessment of quality
  • Closed loop, multi-sensor, precision fertigation, remote sensing
  • Improving Content and Delivery, with the significant expansion of internet connectivity in the country.
  • Technologies (e.g. data collection devices) ; Connectivity (e.g. Internet of Things); Inter-operability (e.g. Apps for data, standards, guidelines)
  • Greater access and availability of tablets and similar devices

Awareness, Education, Training, Capacity building on greening of horticulture, beginning with fruits

  • Upgrading and updating curricular content
  • Strengthen and expand relevant and pertinent Networks, Associations and Consumer Groups
  • Mobilize and involve radio and traditional media

Drawing upon the presentations and discussions of the Dedicated Workshop, an expanded Group of Speakers and Resource Persons would

  • Elaborate a Paradigm of holistic, integrated, multi-disciplinary transformative, translational, sustainable; inclusive and equitable policy, strategy, and practices options, to provide concept and guidelines for greening.
  • Recommend and Elaborate the establishment of a Myanmar Green Horticulture Institute, MGHI, beginning with the establishment of a Green Fruits Center with initial focus on mangoes; jackfruits; pomelos; dragon fruits; pineapples and bananas
  • Craft and Catalyse a Platform for long-lasting collaborations between major stakeholders for the greening of horticulture, a key component of the MGHI.
  • Prepare three Myanmar Green Fruits focused documents: (i) Policy and Strategy Green Paper for decision and policy audience on the challenges, opportunities and benefits. This will be translated into Myanmar language, (ii) a science and evidence based Monograph on Greening of Fruits , and (iii) a multi-year Collaborative Work Programme , with work plans, time line, measurable results and outcomes, resources needed; mechanisms and processes to foster collaboration amongst expanded stake holders, beginning in Myanmar and with AIGE towards ASEAN and other development partners. The Collaborative Programme will aim to build sustained capacities.
  • Produce, televise and broadcast on radio a documentary on the challenges, opportunities and benefits of green fruits. It will be empirical evidence and science based, understandable by general public and decision makers in the country. It will draw upon the three Myanmar Green Fruits documents as well as filming and interviews in Nay Pyi Taw and in fruit orchards.
    The Draft Policy and Strategy Paper is expected to be available by end April 2018 for presentations in Nay Pyi Taw. The Monograph, about end May 2018

The narrative for the Documentary is expected to be available by May and the video in 2018.

The draft multi-year Collaborative Work Programme, will be proceeded by a Workshop of Consortium Partners , for ownership, agreed outcomes, and collaborative implementation process and time line, during the second half of 2018